Cryptographic proofs and modern algebra solve blockchain’s two most pressing problems: scalability and privacy

What is STARK?

Eli Ben-Sasson on STARK (shortened)

Watch the longer version

Blockchains rely on inclusive accountability - everyone can verify the chain’s integrity. This inherent feature begets two of blockchain’s fundamental problems: scalability and privacy. Over the last four decades, theoretical work in the fields of Interactive Proofs (IP), Zero Knowledge Proofs (ZKP) and Probabilistically Checkable Proofs (PCP) has shown how to solve both these problems - but only in the last few years has the theory become practice.

STARK is the culmination of the theory-to-practice journey. It is built on battle-tested cryptography on the one hand, and on recent academic breakthroughs (e.g., quasi-linear PCPs, interactive oracle proofs (IOPs), FRI) on the other. The result is a protocol with unparalleled scale, speed, and safety.

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  • ZK


  • S


  • T


  • ARK

    Argument of


Private inputs are shielded


Prover time scales quasi-linearly with respect to a native computation, while verifier time scales logarithmically


Verifier messages are public coins - no trusted setup

Argument of

A proof can only be generated by a party knowing the private input

Our STARK Math Blog Post Series

Arithmetization I

Part 2: Execution trace and polynomial ...

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Arithmetization II

Part 3: “We need to go deeper”

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Low Degree Testing

Part 4: The secret sauce of succinctness

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A Framework for Efficient STARKs

Part 5: The last step

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Vitalik Butterin on STARK

Part 1 Part 2 Part 3

Hands-On Tutorial for Zero-Knowledge Proofs by Shir Peled

Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4


Scientific Advisors

Avi Wigderson
Madhu Sudan
Shubhangi Saraf
Swastik Kopparty